Блог Надії Вірної: Загострений олівець чи фломастер

«Я – Шарлі». Ці слова зараз промовляють в різних куточках світу в підтримку розстріляних в Парижі журналістів, карикатуристів. Сотні тисяч людей вийшли в знак підтримки та захисту свободи слова. Давно в старій Європі так гостро не поставало питання свободи слова та права на критику. Адже досить часто починаєш цінувати щось тоді, коли його хочуть відібрати або обмежити. Європа та й увесь цивілізований світ висловив підтримку свободі слова, «олівцю» не тільки тому, що сталась жахлива трагедія.

На моє переконання, це був знак журналістам, що їхню роботу цінують, і що не потрібно боятись займатись своєю професією. Ці сотні тисяч з плакатами “Je suis Charlie” ніби закликали журналістів не вдаватись до самоцензури. Адже ці розстріли, а згодом і атаки на видання, які передруковували карикатури, покликані вселити страх, непевність. Покликані розвивати самоцензурування, обмежити свободу слова та думки. І тоді журналістика постає перед дилемою – бути їй «Шарлі», тобто загостреним олівцем, чи м’якеньким фломастером.

Наскільки погрози, фізична агресія можуть змусити журналіста відступити від теми, від роботи? Чи дійсно самоцензура – це те, що настає після таких випадків терору (і не важливо, це в твоїй країні сталось)? Я вирішила запитати у шеф-редактора газети «Час» Петра Кобевка, на якого протягом кар’єри кілька разів було вчинено напади: в кабінет вкидали гранату, організували замах на життя, а в 2014 році було двічі нахабно пограбовано редакцію.

– Як саме відбувались замахи і чи були покарані виконавці та замовники?

4 листопада 1995 року о 19:30, коли я був в Києві, прибиральниця зайшла в кабінет, ввімкнула світло. Нападники подумали, що то я зайшов і кинули у вікно гранату. Потім міліція знайшла психічнохворого 16-літнього хлопця. Той розповів, що за цукерки обміняв гранату і мав кинути її в Прут. Але, сказав, що йшов по вулиці, побачив світло в кабінеті (хоча вікна виходять в двір, а не на вулицю) і кинув гранату. Вже 13 вересня 2002 року, коли я планував їхати в Київ на акцію «Україна без Кучми», десь о пів на дев’яту вечора по дорозі додому в арці мене перестріли двоє, бризнули в обличчя «черемхою» (Н.В. – сльозогінний газ), я втратив свідомість. Зловмисники мене побили і втекли. Через два роки, 28 травня 2004 року, прийшов невідомий чоловік в редакцію і сказав, що в нього є інформація, яка стосується Тягнибока. Але так як він боїться говорити в редакції, попросив вийти з ним на двір. Я вийшов. Там були двоє і вони почали мене бити. А 7 вересня 2004 року в приміщення газети «Час» зайшов чоловік з погрозами вбити Кобевка. Нам з друзями вдалось його скрутити і здати міліції. Ну і свіжа історія про зухвалі пограбування в листопаді 2014 року. Нікого, окрім того малолітнього психічнохворого, не знайшли.

– Чи впливають такі події на роботу, на самоцензуру?

Після такого побоюєшся, звичайно, але все одно робиш те, що робив. Потім воно десь стирається, забувається. Але страх, напевне є. Він є до того часу, поки ти не розумієш, звідки йде загроза. Коли ти розумієш, звідки воно йде, то легше. На жаль, зараз я не знаю, звідки йдуть ті пограбування. Однак, коли журналісти вже багато років в професії, вони все одно будуть працювати так, як звикли. Незважаючи на погрози. Так чинили французькі журналісти. Адже вони працювали так само, як і до погроз. Хіба молодь буде боятись, не йти в журналістику, остерігатись певних тем.

– Чи можуть події у Франції спровокувати агресію проти журналістів в Україні?

Я сумніваюсь. Хоча, дурні бувають і в Україні. От, якщо взяти ці десятки судів проти журналістів в Чернівецькій області. Адже ці суди просто для судів. Тому невідомо, що чекати від тих людей, які проти нас позиваються.

Журналістика не має кордонів географічних. І біль втрати колег однаковий в кожному куточку світу. Так само, як і цінність свободи слова. Так само, як цінність солідаризації в захисті наших прав. Аби тільки кордони не стали в наших головах.

Надія Вірна

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